ManyhaveheardofAlanTuring|体育外围买球投注

本文摘要:Mostrecently,inapaperpublishedThursdayinScience,chemicalengineersinChinausedpatterngenerationdescribedbyTuringtoexplainamoreefficientprocessforwaterdesalination,whichisincreasinglybeingusedtoprovidefreshwaterfordrinkingandirrigationinaridplaces

动物

Many have heard of Alan Turing, the mathematician and logician who invented modern computing in 1935. They know Turing, the cryptologist who cracked the Nazi Enigma code, helped win World War II. And they remember Turing as a martyr for gay rights who, after being prosecuted and sentenced to chemical castration, committed suicide by eating an apple laced with cyanide in 1954.很多人都听到过莱纳·图灵(Alan Turing),对他说是一位一位数学家和逻辑学家,在1935年发明人了当代推算出来。她们告知图灵是一位登陆密码学者,破译了德国纳粹的Enigma登陆密码,帮助同盟国斩获了第二次世界大战。她们还告知,图灵是女同性恋支配权的殉难者,在被控诉并被判刑化学去势后,他于1954年不吃了一个擦抹有氰化氢的iPhone,自杀。

But few have heard of Turing, the naturalist who explained patterns in nature with math. Nearly half a century after publishing his final paper in 1952, chemists and biological mathematicians came to appreciate the power of his late work to explain problems they were solving, like how zebrafish get their stripes or cheetahs get spots. And even now, scientists are finding new insights from Turing’s legacy.但非常少有些人告知图灵是一位昆虫学家,它用数学课来表明大自然的图案设计。在他1952年公布发布最终一篇毕业论文后的接近半世纪里,科学家和微生物一位数学家们刚开始意识到,他中后期的工作中能够用于表明她们已经解决困难的难题,比如,斑马鱼的花纹或猎豹的黑斑是怎样组成的。

乃至到现在,专家仍在从图灵的财产中找寻新的洞悉。Most recently, in a paper published Thursday in Science, chemical engineers in China used pattern generation described by Turing to explain a more efficient process for water desalination, which is increasingly being used to provide freshwater for drinking and irrigation in arid places.近期一次,在周四公布发布在《科学》杂志期刊(Science)上的一篇毕业论文中,我国的化学工程师运用图灵描述的斑图溶解基础理论论述了一种更为合理地的海水淡化设备处理方式。海水淡化设备因此以更为多的被作为干旱气候的生活用水和浇灌自来水提供。

Turing’s 1952 paper did not explicitly address the filtering of saltwater through membranes to produce freshwater. Instead, he used chemistry to explain how undifferentiated balls of cells generated form in organisms.图灵那篇1952年的毕业论文没实际谈及,能够根据薄膜过滤器食盐水来造成谈水。他是用有机化学表明了没明显差别的细胞球是怎样在植物体中造成样子的。It’s unclear why this interested the early computer scientist, but Turing had told a friend that he wanted to defeat Argument From Design, the idea that for complex patterns to exist in nature, something supernatural, like God, had to create them.行远必自不准确这为何引起了这名初期电子计算机生物学家的兴趣爱好,但图灵曾对一位盆友说道他要想篡权目地论述,即大自然中不会有的简单图案一定是某类超自然现象的物品创设出去的,例如造物主。A keen natural observer since childhood, Turing noticed that many plants contained clues that math might be involved. Some plant traits emerged as Fibonacci numbers. These were part of a series: Each number equals the sum of the two preceding numbers. Daisies, for example, had 34, 55 or 89 petals.图灵从小便是灵巧的自然界观测者,他注意到很多绿色植物包含着有可能与数学课涉及到的案件线索。

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一些绿色植物的特性中不会有斐波那契数列。这一数列的一个特点是:每一个数据相同前边2个数据的和。比如,雏菊有34、55或89个花朵。“He certainly was no militant atheist,” said Jonathan Swinton, a computational biologist and visiting professor at the University of Oxford who has researched Turing’s later work and life. “He just thought mathematics was very powerful, and you could use it to explain lots and lots of things — and you should try.”“他自然并不是一位传统的唯物主义者,”剑桥大学(University of Oxford)的教授、推算出来科学家乔纳森·斯温顿(Jonathan Swinton)说道。

他科学研究了图灵的中后期工作中与生活。“他仅仅强调数学课十分强悍,你能用它来表明很多东西——你理应试一试。”And try, Turing did.图灵确实试着了。

“He came up with a mathematical representation that allows form to emerge from blankness,” said Dr. Swinton.“他明确指出了一种数学课关系式,能够不断发展地溶解样子,”斯温顿说道。In Turing’s model, two chemicals he called morphogens interacted on a blank arena. “Suppose you’ve got two of these, and one will make the skin of an animal go black and the skin of the animal go white,” explained Dr. Swinton. “If you just mix these things in an arena, what you get is a gray animal.”在图灵的实体模型中,二种被他称之为成形素(morphogen)的化合物在一个空缺地区相互影响。“假定给你二种成形素,一种不容易让动物的肌肤发红,另一种不容易让动物的肌肤变黑,”斯温顿博士研究生。

“假如把他们混和在一起,动物的肌肤就不容易变成深灰色。”But if something caused one chemical to diffuse, or spread, faster than the other, then each chemical could concentrate in evenly spaced localized spots, together forming black and white spots or stripes.但假如短期内导致一种化合物扩散得比另一种慢,他们就不容易集中化于在间距分布均匀的部分地区,组成灰黑色和乳白色的黑斑或花纹。This is known as a “Turing instability,” and, the Chinese researchers who published the new paper determined that it could explain the way shapes emerged in salt-filtering membranes.这称之为“图灵多变性”。公布发布这篇新的毕业论文的中国研究工作人员推论,它能够表明盐过滤装置膜中经常会出现的构造。

By creating three-dimensional Turing patterns like bubbles and tubes in membranes, the researchers increased their permeability, creating filters that could better separate salt from water than traditional ones.根据在膜上生产制造汽泡和管路等三维图灵构造,科学研究工作人员降低了他们的透水性。这类过滤装置必须比传统式过滤装置更优地提取盐和水。

“We can use one membrane to finish the work of two or three,” said Zhe Tan, a graduate student at Zheijang University in China and first author of the paper, which means less energy and lower cost if used for large-scale desalination operations in the future.“大家可以用一张膜顺利完成两到三张膜的工作中,”浙大的硕士研究生谭喆说道。他是该毕业论文的第一作者。这意味著假如未来作为规模性的除盐工作,耗费的电力能源和成本费都是会降低。

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